Technology

BSNL Fiber Optic experience way to crazy for india

Posted on January 8, 2012. Filed under: fiber optic, Networking, Technology | Tags: , , , , , , , , , |

Passive Optical Network (PON)

BSNL recently finished deploying the Fiber optic cable network throughout Pune City as a first slot of deployment. Internet connection was set to use by offering multiple data volume based plans, some of the speed test drawn by users last night are kept at bottom of the post. Until you reach there, know more about FTTH(Fiber To The Home) network.

What is FTTH ?

Fiber to the home (FTTH) is the delivery of a communications signal over optical fiber from the operator’s switching equipment all the way to a home or business, thereby replacing existing copper infrastructure such as telephone wires and coaxial cable. Fiber to the home is a relatively new and fast growing method of providing vastly higher bandwidth to consumers and businesses, and thereby enabling more robust video, internet and voice services.

Connecting homes directly to fiber optic cable enables enormous improvements in the bandwidth that can be provided to consumers. Current fiber optic technology can provide two-way transmission speeds of up to 100 megabits per second. Further, as cable modem and DSL providers are struggling to squeeze increments of higher bandwidth out of their technologies, ongoing improvements in fiber optic equipment are constantly increasing available bandwidth without having to change the fiber. That’s why fiber networks are said to be “future proof.”

66.88Mbps

70.83Mbps

73.81Mbps

71.03Mbps

75.83Mbps

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Process monitoring on Unix/Linux/Solaris/HP-UX/AIX

Posted on December 28, 2011. Filed under: OS's, Technology |

It’s often a requirement to monitor Unix processes in the field of performance monitoring. However, there is a catch. Different flavors of Unix have different process monitoring tools such as `top`. Of course `top` is not available on all platforms. Similarly HP-UX has something called ‘glance’. This is again very platform specific.

The only CLI that is supported for process monitoring across different flavors of Unix is ‘ps’. However, one of the most two parameters that we are interested in process monitoring is its SIZE and CPU usages. Both of these parameters can be retrieved using ‘ps’ CLI.

To obtain size of a process, we generally use PS parameters ‘vsz’. It’s the size of process in virtual memory. To obtain CPU usages of a process, we generally use PS parameter `cpu` which gives absolute CPU usage of a process. On some Unices, PS provides parameter called ‘pcpu’ which provides percentage of CPU usage by a process. There are still limitations of this approach as described above. Few of the unices do not provide ‘pcpu’ parameter and instead provide ‘cpu’ parameter e.g HP-UX.

However, it’s still better to rely on single UNIX provided `ps` CLI that can be used inside a any shell or Perl script. In order to use `ps` CLI we should be relying on UNIX95 Unix standard as defined in the Single UNIX Specification.

e.g. Following CLI prints “our_process” usages on HP-UX with columns viz. process name, its virtual memory size and its absolute CPU usages on single line. It is just a matter of changing cpu to pcpu and application of few filters on some of the Unix platforms as per our requirements. But it does work.

# export UNIX95=1; ps –eo args,vsz,cpu | grep “our_process”

It just a matter of directing output of above CLI to a file post application of filters

# cntr=1;while test $cntr;do export UNIX95=1; ps -eo args,vsz,sz,cpu |egrep -v “our_process” | awk ‘{print $1″\t”$2\”\t”$4}’ ;done >> /tmp/our_process.txt &

Above while loop keep on dumping process virtual memory size and CPU usages of our_process in /tmp/our_process.txt file. Since output is in tabbed format, this output file can be easily opened in Microsoft Excel and graphs can be plotted.

Do you use any other methodology to monitor processes on Unix machines? If yes then do let everyone know in comments below.

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China may account for half of the world´s fiber users by 2016

Posted on December 28, 2011. Filed under: fiber optic, Network, Technology |

According to a report from industry analyst Ovum, the fiber broadband market will be dominated by China by the year 2016. Most of this growth can be attributed to the sheer size of the Chinese population.

Ovum principal analyst and co-author of the report Julie Kunstler says that, “China is the biggest consumer of FTTx equipment right now and that is set to continue. A key driver of the enormous forecasted growth is the bandwidth and subscriber targets set by the Chinese government and service providers. In addition, the government is providing support for deployments in the form of credit and partnerships. Meanwhile, the significant greenfield construction projects that are under way in the country make the installation of FTTx networks easier.”

China’s fiber to the home penetration is currently very low at just four percent, but this number is still very close to Japan’s year-end 2010 figure at nearly 20 million. By the end of the first quarter of 2011 this number had already grown to over 22 million, according to Informa World Broadband Information Service statistics.

China’s leading native vendor is growing rapidly but continues to face opposition around the world. Politics seems to be playing a large role in the Chinese fiber business. Earlier this year, the company’s U.S. executive Ken Hu wrote an open letter denying that the company had any links to the Chinese military, while more recently it has faced a ban in Taiwan, as it got caught up in the dispute over the island’s sovereignty between its government and its nominal Chinese rulers.

The Chinese migration to fiber comes at a good time for the region. Another recent Ovum study regarding IPv6 found that the Asia/Pacific region currently leads the world in IPv4 to IPv6 transition. There are a variety of reasons for this rapid growth in the region.

The Asia Pacific is the top growth region in the world, manufactures many electronic devices and many companies see this as their key expanding region. Also, many multinational enterprises are growing their businesses in the region, which will influence the faster pace of IPv6 adoption globally. Finally, a sense of urgency in the Asia Pacific region has been prompted by the announcement by the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre that the free pool of IPv4 addresses has been effectively exhausted.

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Mechanical fiber splicing becoming more popular in Asia FTTH

Posted on December 28, 2011. Filed under: fiber optic, Technology |

As fiber deployment accelerates across North America, Asia and Europe, there is a need for field-installed drop cable connectivity solutions that are simple, low in cost and meet high service standards. While mechanical splices have traditionally been restricted to restoration and temporary-service applications in the United States, mechanical splicing at the drop has become a common element of current fiber to the home deployment in Japan, Korea and China.

According to a report by Interconnection world, millions of mechanically spliced FTTH cable drops have been installed in Asian countries in the past year. The users in Asia have been reporting that these splices are meeting performance standards, are less complex and faster than fusion splicing. They also require substantially lower capital investments.

The drop cable connection is a key component in FTTH, and dependable broadband service requires that subscriber drops be stable, efficiently installed, operationally flexible and inexpensive. These conflicting objectives call for innovative drop cable solutions that can satisfy the growing global demand for high speed services. Apparently, mechanically spliced FTTH cable drops have been fitting the bill in some of the world’s fastest growing new fiber markets the report said.

Fusion splicing has been the de facto standard for fiber feeder and distribution construction projects, so handheld fusion splicers are considered to be the standard for FTTH drop splicing. However, initial capital costs, maintenance costs, and installation speed are key points to consider according to the report.

Factory-terminated patch cords have gained acceptance in the United States because they eliminate the need for specialized equipment, and they are quick and easy to install. However, mechanical splicing can customize the cable installation to the need, similar to the copper drop installation. In addition, the tools for mechanical splicing have no power or environmental requirements, need no maintenance or calibration, and can be set up quickly the report said.

Fiber deployment in Asia is moving quickly as the region gears up to compete globally. A report from The Next Web says that China Telecom, the country’s state-owned telecommunications operator, plans to reach 30 million users for its fiber optic broadband service this year, and have the entire nation run on fiberoptic infrastructure in three years.

Under the Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government will focus heavily on developing the telecommunications infrastructure, with total investments reaching 2 trillion yuan (roughly $300 billion), about 80 percent of which is allocated for broadband development. The plan is to cover every city in China with the fiber broadband service in three years and convert all copper lines to fiber, China Daily reported.

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New optical technology could improve network capabilities

Posted on December 28, 2011. Filed under: fiber optic, Technology |

Optical cabling has really come into prevalence during the past few years, and many telecom providers are currently working to expand their optical networks around the globe. As the technology has become more pervasive in a number of sectors, researchers have been working to develop ways to improve optical cabling moving forward. Recently, experts from Southampton University in the United Kingdom made a major breakthrough that will likely impact the optical cabling industry and many other technology sectors, the Engineer reports.

Researchers that specialize in the field of optoelectronics recently discovered a new method of device manufacturing that uses phase change chalcogenides to improve the physical makeup of optical cabling, semiconductors and other key technologies, according to the news source.

Dan Hewak, professor at Southampton University, told the Engineer the new solution diversifies how phase change materials can be deployed in technological settings.

“With chalcogenides we can form the material into fibers, thin films, microspheres, nanophotonics – anything that you can make glass into, but they also have the electronic properties of semiconductors, so it’s almost a marriage of the two worlds,” Hewak told the news source.

Using chalcogenides to give optical cables phase change capabilities could dramatically improve optical network performance. Hewak told the Engineer current optical cabling is made primarily from silica glass, which is inactive and simply a transit path for light signals. With chalcogenides forming the glass for optical networks, the cabling itself is active and can be used to improve switching speeds, remove the need for amplifiers and repeaters, reduce network bottlenecks and improve overall performance, Hewak explained.

The research is currently at a relatively early stage where chalcogenide-based optical cables and semiconductors have been made and had their capabilities proven, but the manufacturing processes have not been refined to a point where mainstream companies will be able to take the technology and turn it into products that can be deployed on a large scale. However, the researchers recently received a major grant to work with Cambridge University to begin preparing chalcogenides-based technology for widespread use, the report said.

While optical cabling advances illustrate the technology’s rising potential, some telecom carriers are still concerned with costs and waiting for prices to drop before expanding their fiber to the home networks. According to a recent Infonetics Research report, many carriers are moving slowly to upgrade current FTTH networks due to high component costs.

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